Uropi-English grammatical dictionary

to (aim, direction), to (dative)

Ito a skol = to go to school, ito a dom = to go home, ito ru a siu genipòl = return to one's native town, Davo ekwa a u fram = to give something to a friend, dezo halo a de kide = to say Hello to the children
a dest right, to the right (movement)
Vir a dest ! = turn right !, Glad a dest ! = Look right ! Zi un doʒ viro a dest = here one should turn right
a lif left, to the left (movement)
Vir a lif ! = turn left !, glad a lif ! = look left !
-a, -as indicating feminine (singular and plural)
frat, sesta = brother, sister, son, dota = son, daughter, man, ʒina = man, woman, kat = (tom-)cat, kata = (she-)cat, gal = cock, gala = hen, doktor = doctor, doktora = woman-doctor, prisedan = president, prisedana = woman-president, avokàt = lawyer, avokata = woman-lawyer
-ad -ing, -tion, -ness … (noun suffix)
snivo = to swim, snivad = swimming, pivo = to drink, pivad = drinking, akto = to act, aktad = action, bun = good, kind, bunad = kindness, voko = to speak, vokad = speech
aj yes
Vol vu tej ? -Aj = would you like some tea ? -yes, Ce dez aj a talun = she says yes to everybody, aj, siurim = yes, certainly, aj o ne ? = yes or no ? aj id ne = yes and no, aj (mi) sior ? = yes sir ?
alòng along
Alòng de vaj = along the way, alòng de riv = along the river
altem otherwise (adv.)
Je moz ne so altem = it cannot be otherwise, He avev ne mozen akto altem = he could not have acted other than he did,
alten other (adj. & pron.) , else
Un alten = another (one), Dav mo un alten kemìz = give me another shirt, de alten = the other one, de alten mold = the other world, de alten dia = the other day, un alten vos = another time, un pos alten = one after the other, nekun alten = nobody else, ekwa alten = something else, ekia alten = somewhere else, nit alten = nothing else
altene others (pron.)
Je ste altene = there are some others, altene av voken ov ha = others have spoken about him, eke gus faro avim, altene trenim = some like flying, others prefer the train, da man od tale altene = that man of all others
altia elsewhere, somewhere else
Set ja altia ! = put it somewhere else ! hi ment, hi mene se altia = his mind is elsewhere, lu ven od altia = they come from somewhere else
-an -ing (suff. present participle)
liamo = to love, liaman = loving, sopo = to sleep, sopan = sleeping, varko = to work, i se varkan = I'm working, studo = to study, he se studan = he's studying
an- un- (contrary of adj.)
lisen = read, anlisen = unread, oren = heard, anoren = unheard, cansi = lucky, ancansi = unlucky, prijan = pleasant, anprijan = unpleasant, konen = known, ankonen = unknown
ane without
I gus pivo kafa ane suker = I like to drink coffee without sugar, ane kap nè mantèl = without a hat or coat, ane denie = without any money, ane dub = without a doubt
ap off, away (adv.)
Neme ap vi kap ! = Take off you hat ! He falì ap de tag = he fell off the roof, It ap, las ma in pac ! = go away, leave me alone ! De avièl flevì ap be pin = the plane took off at five, de lag se 3 kme ap = the lake is 3 km away
-ar suffix indicating bearer (trees) or container
Apel = apple, aplar = apple-tree, pir = pear, pirar = pear-tree, ac = ash, acar = ash-tray, kirèl = candle, kirelar = candlestick
aròn around
Aròn de has = around the house, tal aròn = all around, aròn de foj = around the fire, he gladì aròn sia = he looked around him
avev …-en would have …ed (Past con-ditional)
Is he avev aneren de fent, he avev vizen wa uspasì = If he had come near the window, he would have seen what was happening
avì …-en had … -ed, -en (past perfect)
He avì pajen = he had paid, lu avì mol varken = they had worked a lot, Avì ce venen ? = Had she come ? I avì ne vizen ja = I hadn't seen it
avo 1) have (got) (verb) . .......... 2) have (auxiliary of the perfect)
I av du bibe = I have two books, Av tu denie ? = have you got any money ? I av ne tem = I haven't got time, I av lisen di bib = I've read this book, Av tu oren de nov ? = have you heard the news ?
ba but (conj.)
I av de bib, ba i vol ne liso ja = I have the book, but I don't want to read it, He s'ne Engli, ba Iri = he isn't English, but Irish, lu se pavri, ba inregi = they are poor, but honest
be at (position), at, in (time), per, a (distributive)
Be bank = at the bank, be kerk = at church, be dom = at home, be skol = at school, be mi genore = at my parents', be mi tiot = at my uncle's, be de dantìst = at the dentist's, be ses id mij = at half past six, be kwer min kwert = at a quarter to four, be morna, be vespen = in the morning, in the evening, be dia, be noc = during the day, at night, be keb = per capita, be jar = a year, per annum
be dest on the right
Mi has se be dest = my house is on the right, je ste u gardin be dest de hasi = there is a garden to the right of the house
befènd at last
Befènd he nemì de becizad id itì us = At last he made a decision and went out, Dez ja mo befènd = Tell me about it at last
be lif on the left (position)
Be lif je ste u gardin = on the left there is a garden, de gardin se be lif de hasi = the garden is to the left of the house, de dor be lif = the door on the left
begòn contrary to (prep & adv.)
Mi maʒa, begòn ma, gus ne vaizo = my wife, contrary to me, doesn't like travelling
bekòz because of
Nu v'ne ito pasìto bekòz de pej verem = We won't go for a walk because of the bad weather, bekòz hi ald = because of his age
bemìd in the middle of
Bemìd de strad = in the middle of the street, bemìd de sal = in the middle of the room, bemìd de morna = in the middle of the morning
bemìn at least
Je kost bemìn sunte Euròs = It costs at least a hundred Euros, Je stì bemìn destilie liente = There were at least ten thousand people, Bemìn, je liuv ne = At least it isn't raining, Vizen te tu ven ne domòr, staj bemìn un hor ki ma = Considering you're not coming tomorrow, you might at least stay an hour with me
benìz below, beneath, at the bottom of (adv. & prep)
Benìz de skalia = at the bottom of the stairs, downstairs, benìz de paʒ = at the bottom of the page, de rum ven od benìz = the noise is coming from down below, benìz de koln = at the foot of the hill, he dom benìz = he lives downstairs
beòp at the top (of) (prep. & adv.)
Beòp de koln = at the top of the hill, beòp de list = at the top of the list, beòp de skal = at the top of the ladder, beòp de paʒ = at the top of the page
beròn about, around, approximately
Je stì beròn dudes liente = there were about 20 people, beròn des hore = about ten o'clock,
berù behind (prep. & adv.)
I viz ne sol num, je se berù de nolbe = I can't see the sun now, it's behind the clouds, lu renì berù de has = they ran behind the house
bezàt next to, beside
De kerk ste bezàt de skol = the church stands next to the school, hi kamar se bezàt mìa = his room is next to mine, ce sedì niz bezàt ci frat = she sat down beside her brother
bun good, well
Bun! = Good! Di se bun = that's good, bun dia, bun morna = good day, good morning, bun vaiz! = have a good trip! Bun cans! = good luck!
ca her (object)
I liam ca = I love her, he kopì ja po ca = he bought it for her, he itì us ki ca = he went out with her
ce she
Ce s' bel = she's beautiful, ce vark bun = she works well, ce s' mi dota = she's my daughter
ci her (poss. adj.)
Di se ci bag = this is her bag, Kon vu ci genore ? = Do you know her parents ? I gus ci smij = I like her smile
co to her (dative)
He davì co flore = he gave her flowers, parkà skriv tu ne co ? = why don't you write to her ? Av tu voken co ? = Have you spoken to her ?
da that, those (dem. adj. & pron.)
Da rum = that noise, da vag = that car, da hase = those houses, da koln zadàl = that hill over there, ka s' da ? = what's that ?, gus vu da ? = do you like that ?, for da, pos da = before that, after that
dafòr before, beforehand (adv.)
Eke mone dafòr = a few months before(hand), longim dafòr = long before, de sedia dafòr = the week before
dal od far from (adv.)
Se je dal od London = Is it far from London ? Ne dal od za = not far from there, je s'ne dal od minòc = it isn't far from midnight, nu se jok dal od de verid = we're still far from the truth
dapòs afterwards, later on (adv.)
Vene vizo ma dapòs = come and se me afterwards, osprù dapòs = immediately afterwards, long-im dapòs = a long time later
dask a thanks to
Dask a wa he detì = thanks to what he did, dask a Doj ! = thank God !
daske thank you
Daske mole = thank you very much, je s' nit = don't mention it
davos then (at that time)
I sì jok jun davos = I was still young then, dod davos = since then
daz, daze that one, those ones (demonstrative pron. singular & plural)
I prigùs daz a diz = I prefer that to this, daze zadàl = those over there, daze we venì = those who came, i av mole roze, ba i prigùs daze bij = I have many roses, but I prefer the white ones
de the (definite article)
De maj lovi, de lovies = the prettiest, de siavor de blu vagi = the owner of the blue car, de maʒa de bankori = the banker's wife, de tej, de kafa wen i av kopen = the tea, the coffee I have bought, item sam a de stasia = let's go to the station together
de maj, de …-es the most, the …est (superlatives)
Ce s' de maj lovi, de lovies = she's the prettiest, de bunes = the best, the pejes = the worst, de maj inteligan = the most intelligent
de min the least
Di novar se de min interesan = this newspaper is the least interesting, de min diari = the least expensive, je s'de min i moz deto = it's the least I can do
des ten (10)
Je se des min kwert = It's a quarter to ten, des tilie = ten thousand
deto to do (verb), to make (causative)
Je det ma trist = it makes me sad, he detì ma incepo = he made me understand, deto ekun jedo = to make somebody eat, he detì de kwal reno = he made the horse run
di this, these (dem. adj. & pron.)
Ke s' di man ? = who is this man ? di sedia = this week, i gus di fotò maj te daz = I like this photo better than that one, Ka s' di ? = what is this ? kej se di ? = whose is this ? Di se mi son = this is my son, di se wa he dikì mo = this is what he showed me
di- un-, dis- (verbal prefix: reverse action)
deto = to do, dideto = undo, krovo = to cover, dikrovo = uncover, favoro = to favour, difavoro = disfavour
dis- dis- (prefix indicating disper-sion)
Davo = to give, disdavo = to distribute, part = part, disparto = to share, voko = to talk, speak, disvoko = discuss
diz, dize this one, these ones (demonstrative pron. singular & plural)
Diz se blu id daz se roj = this one is blue and that one is red, Kamòl kost dize ? = how much are these ones ?
do towards (prep.) (direction & time)
Is he ven do va = if he comes towards you, Ko se vi dom ? Do west = Where's your home ? to the west, ci felade do ha av ne meten = her feelings towards him haven't changed, do vespen = towards the evening
dod since, for (time)
Dod da dia = since that day, i se ʒivan zi dod du jare = I 've been living here for two years, dod davos = since then, dod num = from now on, dod longim = long since
doʒo must (modal verb), should (in the conditional)
Tu doʒ ne togo ja = you mustn't touch it, vu doʒ ito ap num = you must go away now, ka doʒ nu deto num ? = what must we do now ? tu doʒev stopo fumo = you should stop smoking
domòr tomorrow (adv.)
I far in vaiz domòr = tomorrow I'm going on a journey, domori morna = tomorrow morning
du two
Koto in du = to cut in two, du be du = two by two
-e -s (plural of nouns ending in a consonant)
U bib = a book, bibe = books, de man = the man, de mane = the men, mi mantèl = my coat, mi mantele = my coats, vag = car, mole vage = many cars, bus = bus = tri buse = three buses, kun = dog, eke kune = a few dogs
ek, eke some, a few (singular, plural)
Vol vu ek pan ? = would you like some bread, eke liente dez te… = some people say that…, nem ek ! = have some ! i av ek = I've got some, nu v'ito ap in eke minute = we'll go away in a few minutes, je ste ek man za, i kon ne ha = there is some man there, I don't know him
eki certain
Un eki sior = a certain gentleman, un eki dia vernu = on a certain day in spring, he avì un eki karʒad = il avait un certain courage
ekia somewhere
Set ti bag ekia = put your bag somewhere, ekia ner Parìs = somewhere near Paris, ekia in Italia = somewhere in Italy, Av vu ekia po domo ? = Have you got somewhere to stay?
ekigradim to some degree, to a certain degree
Tu se regi, ba solem ekigradim = You are right, but only to a certain degree
ekun someone, somebody
Je ste ekun be de dor = there is somebody at the door, ekun alten = somebody else, nu nud ekun verim krati = we need somebody really strong, ekun od de vik = somebody from the village
ekvos sometimes
Ekvos felic, ekvos trist = sometimes happy, sometimes sad, ekvos he kovèn id ekvos ne = sometimes he agrees and sometimes not, ekvos je ste neb in vima = sometimes there is fog in winter
ekwa something
Dezì vu ekwa ? = Did you say something ? Ekwa bun, ekwa bel, ekwa rari = some-thing good, something beautiful, something rare, i nud ekwa po jedo, po pivo = I need something to eat, to drink
ekwim somehow, in some way
Ekwim i doʒ deto ja = somehow I must do it
-èl suffix indicating a tool, an instrument
Koto = to cut, kotèl = knife, koko = to cook, kokèl = cooker, pento = to paint, pentèl = paint-brush, foj = fire, fojèl = lighter
-em let's, let us … Imperative ending (1st pers. plural)
Item ! = Let's go !, Varkem ! = Let's work !, Vokem ! = Let's speak !
-en -ed, -en (past participle ending)
Liamo = to love, liamen = loved, varko = to work, varken = worked, jeden = eaten, vizen = seen, iten = gone, deten = done, incepen = understood
eni any
Eni kid moz deto di = Any child can do this, in eni kaz = in any case
enia anywhere
I rumèn ne ko i setì mi graf, je moj so enia = I don't remember where I put my pen, it may be anywhere
eniun anybody, anyone
Talun vol so felic. Prag a eniun = Everybody wants to be happy. Ask anyone
enivos anytime
Vu moz veno enivos. I se talvos glaj vizo va = You may come anytime. I'm always glad to see you
eniwa anything
I vol ne jedo eniwa = I don't want to eat anything
eniwim anyhow, in any way
Vu doʒ deto ja eniwim = You must do it anyway, Vu moz deto ja eniwim = you may do it as you like
-ev would (conditional marker)
I volev vido doktor = I would like to be a doctor, i menì te vu volev zavo ja = I thought you'd want to know (it), i dezì ho te i detev ja = I told him I would do it, is tu pragev ho, he detev ja = if you asked him, he would do it, he avev deten ja = he would have done it, lu avev iten za = they would have gone there
for 1) before (prep. & conj. of time) 2) ago (adv.)
For de lesiòn = before the lesson, for de kide insòp = before the children go to sleep, lav ti mande for jedo ! = wash your hands before eating, Tri dias for = three days ago, longim for = a long time ago, long ago
for- pre-, fore- (verbal prefix)
Meno = to think, formeno = premeditate, dezo = to tell, fordezo = predict, foretell, vizo = to see, forvizo = foresee, vord = word, forvòrd = foreword
foram formerly (adv.)
Seni liente dez molvos te foram tal sì maj bun te num = Old people often say that formerly everything was better than now, foram nu ʒivì in un alten pol = previously we lived in another town
gon against (prefix): counter-, anti-
Gon mi volad = against my will, gon de leg = against the law, je ste ne leg gon ja = there's no law against it, gon de mur = against the wall, gonavi = anti-aircraft, gondezo = contradict, gonvèz = counterweight
gonim on the contrary, on the other hand
Mi maʒa gonim, gus ne vaizo = my wife, on the contrary, doesn't like travelling, aj ba gonim ce se mol ric = yes, but on the other hand, she's very rich
guso to like
I gus flore = I like flowers, kim gusì vu de film ? = how did you like the film ?, I gus ostre, ba lu gus ne ma = I like oysters but they don't like me, I gus muzik, Mozart = I like music, Mozart, ti pater ve ne guso ja = your father won't like it
ha him (pers. pron. . object)
I viz ha = I see him, i av vizen ha = I have seen him, it ki ha ! = go with him ! ane ha = without him, lu vark po ha = they work for him, ce men ov ha = she's thinking of him
he he (pers. pron. . subject)
He vok Uropi bun = he speaks Uropi well, he zav ne = he does'nt know, Ven he ? = Is he coming ? Zis he = here he is, he se medikor, doktor = he's a doctor
hi his (poss. adj.)
Hi bib = his book, hi frame = his friends, hi veste = his clothes, he av breken hi gam = he has broken his leg, di poèm se hi = this poem is his
hìa, hìas his (poss. pron.) . (singular & plural)
De has vidì hìa = the house became his, mi mande se niti, hìas se suj = my hands are clean, his are dirty
ho to him (pers. pron. . dative)
I davì ho de bib = I gave him the book, i ve voko ho = I'll speak to him, tu doʒev skrivo ho = you should write to him, send ho de skrit ! = send him the letter !
hor hour, time
Ka hor se je ? = What time is it ? Je s'un = It's one o'clock, Je s'oc = It's eight o'clock, Je s' tri id mij = It's half past three, Je s'un id kwert = It's a quarter past one, Je s' du min des = It's ten to two, Je se puntim kwer = It's 4 o'clock exactly, Je se tri hore mornu = It's three in the morning, Je s'oc hore vespeni = It's eight p.m., Je s' des hore noci = It's ten o'clock at night
i I (pers. pron.) (also used with comparatives)
I liam ta = I love you, i se fami = I'm hungry, i som mozì ne deto ja = I could'nt do it myself, i ne ! = not me ! he se maj alti te i = he's taller than me
-ed (past tense marker)
He vaizì mol = he travelled a lot, i zavì ne = I didn't know, gusì tu ja ? = did you like it ? he liamì ca = he loved her, lu vekì sia = they woke up, he sì ne za = he wasn't there
-i, -is -u, -us 's, s' (genitive)
De bib di bobi = this boy's book, de kamar mi sestu = my sister's room, de vag mi genoris = my parents' car, de kun hi sestus = his sisters' dog, de dor de hasi = the door of the house, u has des salis = a house of 10 rooms
-ia suffix indicating place
Snivo = to swim, snivia = swimming-pool, koko = to cook, kokia = kitchen, ban = bath , bania = bathroom, Franci = French, Francia = France, Engli = English, Englia = England, ekia = some-where, nekia = nowhere, enia = anywhere
-ic -ish (suffix = rather, expressing tendency)
blu = blue, bluic = bluish, pati = ill, sick, patic = sickly, ʒina = woman, ʒinic = effeminate, meto = to change, metic = changing, fickle
id and
Pater id mata = father and mother, dias id dias = days and days, I gus santo id danso = I like singing and dancing, He s' ne tan id pur he vark ʒe mol = He isn't tired and yet he works a lot, id sim pro, i.s.p. = and so on, etc.
-id -ity, -hood, -ship ..(noun suff. corresponding to adj. in "-i")
egli = equal, eglid = equality, mani = manly, manid = manhood, manliness, lifri = free, lifrid = freedom, veri = true, verid = truth, lovi = pretty, lovid = "prettiness", frati = brotherly, fraternal, fratid = fraternity, brotherhood
idmàj moreover, in addition
Idmàj he nem vespeni kurse = in addition he's taking evening classes, Idmàj ce or ne bun = Moreover she can't hear very well
idsim therefore, thus, so
I men, idsim i se = I think, therefore I am, I kovenì ne, idsim i apnegì = I didn't agree, so I refused, he misì de tren, idsim he mozì ne veno = he missed the train and thus he wasn't able to come.
-ij -y, -ia ....(noun ending corres-ponding to adj. in -ic )
agonij = agony, harmonij = harmony, energij = energy, melankolij = melancholy, monarkij = monarchy, utopij = utopia, ceremonij = ceremony, teorij = theory
-im -ly (adverb marker)
Siudi = usual, siudim = usually, veri = true, real = real, verim, realim = really, felic = happy, felic-im = fortunately, pod = foot, podim = on foot, noc = night, nocim = by night, vag = car, vagim = by car
in in ......(location, time) ... (other) into
I ʒiv in Rusia = I live in Russia, Je ste ne cumpe in di fost = there are no mushrooms in this forest, in soma, in verna = in Summer, in Spring, in Janvar, in Maj = in January, in May, in da jar = in that year, mi pater kre in ma = my father believes in me, ce renì in de kamar = she ran into the room
in- in-, im- .......(prefix indicating (movement inwards)
Breko = to break, inbreko = to break into, burglarize, preso = to press, inpreso = to impress, muvo = to move, inmuvo = to move (emotionally)
in pasan by the way
In pasan, i av ne jok lisen di bib = By the way, I haven't read this book yet
inia inside, within
Je s' varmi inia de has = it's warm inside the house, I se inia, ven in ! = I'm inside, come in
instà instead of
It za instà ma ! = Go there instead of me !, he jeg instà varko = he plays instead of working, un doʒ akto instà voko = one should act instead od speaking
intra between
Intra vu id i = between you and me, u maj bun incepad intra polke = a better understanding between the peoples, intra pin id ses = between 5 and 6 o'clock, ce se intra 25 id 30 jare = she is between 25 and 30
is if
I v'ito is tu ven ki ma = I'll go if you come with me, is je liuv, i ve stajo be dom = if it rains I'll stay at home, is verem sev bel, nu itev pasìto = if the weather was fine, we would go for a walk, is i avev zaven, i avev viziten la = if I had known I would have visited them
is … o … whether … or …
Is tu gus ja o ne… = whether you like it or not…, is je liuv o snev, i v'ito us = whether it rains or snows I'm going out, is tu it o ne… = if you go or not …
-it -ita -ito little (diminutive suff.) (feminine) (verb)
has = house, hasit = little house, Jan = John, Janit = Johnny, sop = sleep, sopit = nap, sopito = to take a nap, ʒika = girl, ʒikita = little girl
ja it (neuter, object)
Di se mi kamar, i gus ja = this is my room, I like it, i av seten vi bib in ja = I've put your book in it, ki ja, su ja, ov ja… = with it, on it, about it, Ekune sem so interesen ov ja = Some people seem interested in it
jaki each (adj.)
Jaki dia = each day, jaki bib kost 10 Euròs = each book costs 10 Euros, he intrakòt ma be jaki momènt = he interrupts me every other second, Jaki dia he it us dom be oc = Each day he leaves home at 8 o'clock
jakivos each time
Jakivos he ven = each time he comes, jakivos i viz ta i se glaj = Each time I see you I'm glad
jakun each person, each one
Jakun po sia = every man for himself, a jakun slogan hi guste = everyman to his own taste, jakun od na = each one of us
je it (neuter, subject)
Je liuv = it's raining, ka sin je ? = what does it mean ?, Je s'u roj vag = it's a red car
je ste there is, there are
Je ste du butele vini = there are two botlles of wine, je ste u vaz su de tab = there is a vase on the table, Ste je u bank ner zi ? = Is there a bank near here ? Kamole liente ste je ? = How many people are there ?
jesta yesterday (adv.)
He avenì solem jesta = he arrived only yesterday, jesta je liuvì tal dia = yesterday it rained all day, i mozì ne deto ja jesta, ba i ve deto ja domòr = I couldn't do it yesterday, but I'll do it tomorrow
ji its (poss. adj.)
De hotèl se famos po ji kokad = the hotel is famous for its food (cooking)
jok, ne jok still, as yet, so far not yet
He vaiz jok = he still travels, lu se jok us de pol = they are still out of town, i av ne jok fenden = I haven't finished yet, nu av ne jok vizen ca = we haven't seen her yet, jok unvos = one more time
ʒa already, ever
I se ʒa be dom = I'm already at home, he av ʒa fenden hi vark = he has already finished his work, Av vu ʒa vizen di film ? = have you ever seen this film ?
ʒate since (cause)
Parkà kop tu ne ja, ʒate tu se sa ric = Why don't you buy it, since you are so rich ?, Je doʒ so veri, ʒate he dez ja = it must be true since he says so
ʒe really, after all, you see, do (emphatic particle)
Item ʒe ! = come on!, come now! Sil ʒe! = do be quiet! Skuc ma ʒe! = Do listen to me!, Kim ʒe ? How so ? He se ʒe mol stupi = he's really very stupid, I se ʒe de raj ! = I'm the king after all !
ka ? what ? 1) (interrogative) ......... 2) (exclamatory)
Ka vol vu ? = what do you want ?, Ka vizì ce ? = What did she see ?, Ka hor se je ? = What time is it ? I zav ne ka deto = I don't know what to do, Ka magi has ! = What a huge house ! Ka stupi nu se ! = What fools we are ! Ka dam ! = what a pity !
ka dal ? how far ?
Ka dal se je a London ? = How far is it to London ?
ka longim ? how long ?
Ka longim ve tu stajo ? = How long will you stay ? Ka longim ve je duro ? = How long will it last ? Dod ka longim se tu studan Greci ? = How long have you been studying Greek ?
ka molvos? how often ?
Ka molvos vizì tu ca ? = How often did you see her ? Ka molvos far de buse ? = how often do the buses run ?
kamòl, kamole ?

How much (sing.)...

How many ? (plur.)

Kamòl kost je ? = How much is it, does it cost ? kamole dias ve vu stajo ? = How many days will you stay ? Kamole denie av tu ? = How much money have you got ? kamòl tej, kamòl suker ? = how much tea, how much sugar ? Kamòl vez di pakel ? = How much does this parcel weigh ?
kan ? When ? (interrogative)
Kan ve tu veno ? = When will you come ? Kan usvenì je ? = When did it happen ? Kan ve de tren faro ap ? = When will the train leave ? Kan ve so de vedad ? = When's the weddding ? I zav ne kan nu ve revizo ha = I don't know when we'll see him again, Dod kan ? = since when ?
kaz case
In di kaz = in this case, in u sul kaz = in such a case, in eni kaz = in any case, in majsan kaze = in most cases
ke ? who ? (interrogative)
Ke s' vu ? = Who are you ?, Ke s' je ? = who is it ? Ke detì ja ? = who did it ? I zav ne ke he s' = I don't know who he is, Ke doʒ eldo ta, usim i ? = Who should help you apart from me ?, Ke retalì ja to ? = Who told you ?
kej ? whose ? (interrog.)
Kej se di ? = whose is this ? Kej se di kap ? = Kej kap se di ? = Whose is this hat ?, Whose hat is this ? Kej son se vu ? = whose son are you ?
kel ? kele ? which ? which one ? (adj. & pron. singular & plural)
Kel kart nemì he ? = Which card did he take ? Kele bibe vol tu ? = Which books do you want ? Kel od va ? = Which one of you ? I zav ne kel bib he vol = I don't know which book he wants
ken ? whom ?, who ? (interrog. object)
Ken vizì vu ? = Who (whom) did you see ?, Pa ken se di bib ? = by whom is this book ? ki ken ? = who with ? with whom ?, A ken ? = to whom ? who to ? Po ken ve nu voto ? = Who shall we vote for ?
ki with (accompaniment, des-cription, manner, means …)
Ven tu ki ma ? = are you coming with me ? I vol ito ki ca = I want to go with her, U ʒina ki u vaizibàg = a woman with a travelling bag, Koveno ki ekun = to agree with somebody, Ki prijad = with pleasure, de has ki de blu dor = the house with the blue door, koto ki u kotèl = to cut with a knife, vado ki u bast = to walk with a stick, He itì in ki kap in mand = He went in with his hat in his hand
kim ? how .......(interrogative)............ (in exclamations)
Kim it je vo ? = how are you ? Kim gusì vu de stek ? = How did you like the steak ? Kim se da ? = How is that ? how so ?, Kim je se gren ! = How big it is !, Kim i se glaj vizo va ! = how glad I am to see you !
kirkim about, around, approximately
Kirkim tilie Euròs = around a thousand Euros, kirkim sunte kilòs = around 100 kilos, Kirkim tilie liente morì = Around a thousand people died
ko ? where ? (interrogative)
Ko dom tu ? = where do you live ?, Od ko ven tu ? = Where do you come from ? Ko it vu ? = Where are you going ? Ko se de stasia ? = Where is the station ? I prag mo ko he se = I wonder where he is
ko- co-, com-, con- (prefix = with, together)
Koʒivo = to cohabit (live with), kovarko = to collaborate (work with), koplago = to collide (hit with), kometo = to exchange (commute), kokluzo = to conclude, kocentro = to concentrate, korenor = competitor (runner with)
kono to know (someone)
I kon ne da persòn = I don't know this person, Kon vu mi frat ? = do you know my brother ? Aj, i kon ha bun = Yes, I know him well, I kon ca solem od viz = I know her only by sight
koslogim consequently, as a result
Koslogim he fajì = consequently he failed
kovigim ki in relation to
He se neutri kovigim ki di kest = he is neutral in relation to this question
kwer four
Su kwer pate = on all fours, intra kwer mure = between four walls
la them (pers. pron. object)
I vizì la = I saw them, I kon ca, ba i kon ne la = I know her but I don't know them, ce men ov la = she's thinking of them, obe od la = both of them, vari od la = several of them, nun od la = none of them
las let (imperative)
Las he ven ! = Let him come ! Las lu far ap ! = let them drive away !
li their (poss. adj.)
I kon ne li nome ? = I don't know their names ? Vizì vu li vag ? Did you see their car ? Di se li kid, ne mìa = this is their child, not mine, Tal av sen li kulp = all has been their fault
-li -able, -ible (adj. suffix)
Mozo = can, mozli = possible, liso = to read, lisli = legible, jedo = to eat, jedli = edible, incepo = to understand, incepli = understandable
lìa, lìas theirs..... (poss. pron. singular & plural)
Vi has se maj bun te lìa = your house is better than theirs, i men te je s'un od lìas = I think it's one of theirs, de has vidì lìa = the house became theirs
lo to them (pers. pron. object)
Ce skrivì lo = she wrote to them, i ve voko lo = I will speak to them, nu av senden lo de pakel = we have sent them the parcel
lu they (pers. pron. subject)
Lu av iten ap = they have gone, zis lu = here they are, lu se dictore = they are teachers, lu zav nit ov ja = they know nothing about it, nu se maj speli te lu = we are faster than them (they)
ma me ...........(pers. pron. object).... (& with prepositions)
He vizì ma = he saw me, ane ma = without me, i v' nemo ja ki ma = I'll take it with me, lu sì vokan ov ma = they were talking about me, po ma = for me, be ma = at my place, aròn ma = around me
maj more (& used in comparatives)
I nud mole maj = I need a lot more, mol maj tem = much more time, u poj maj = a little more, unvos maj = once more, maj he jed, maj he fam = the more he eats, the more hungry he is, maj id maj = more and more, Maj i men ov ja, min i vid kovikten = The more I think about it, the less convinced I am
maj … te more … than, …er than (comparatives)
Di novar se maj interesan te daz = this newspaper is more interesting than that one, he ren maj spel te i = he runs faster than me, ce lis maj te he = she reads more than me, he se maj stupi te mali = he's more stupid than malicious,
majsan (de) most ....(largest part)
De majsan liente = most people, de majsan tem = most of the time, de majsan denie = most of the money, de majsan od la = most of them, in de majsan kaze = in most cases
mi my .....(poss. adj.)
Mi fram = my friend, mi frama = my girl-friend, I av breken mi gam = I have broken my leg, Kon tu mi genore ? = Do you know my parents ?
mìa, mìas mine ... (poss. pron. singular & plural)
Di se vi menad, ne mìa = this is your opinion, not mine, di bag se mìa = this bag is mine, di cuse s' ne mìas = these shoes are not mine
mij half ....(adj. & n.)
U mij tas = half a cup, du tase id mij = two and a half cups, koto in mij = to cut in half, du mije det u tal = two halves make a whole, du kilòs id mij = 2 kilos and a half, je se ses id mij = it's half past six
miliòn million
Du milione Euròs = two million Euros, un miliòn liente = a million people
min less, fewer
Di novar se min interesan te daz = this newspaper is less interesting than that one, He ren min spel te vu = he doesn't run so fast as you, nu sper te in futùr je ve sto min were te num = we hope that in the future there will be fewer wars than now
mo to me, me (pers. pron. dative)
He davì mo de bib = he gave me the book, Dav ja mo ! = Give it to me ! Ce sì mo vokan = she was speaking to me, Lu skrivì ne mo = they didn't write to me, Dez ja mo ! = say it to me ! Usklàr ja mo ! = Explain it to me !
mojo may ..... (modal verb)
Di moj so veri = this may be true, mojse = maybe, perhaps, he mojev aveno = he might arrive, tu avev mojen tudo ma = you might have killed me
mojse maybe, perhaps
Mojse he ve veno = Perhaps he will come, Is he ven domòr, mojse he v'dezo ja to = If he come tomorrow, maybe I'll tell him, Mojse Peter zav ja = Maybe Peter knows it, Mojse nu av tiomòl varten = Maybe we have waited too long
mol very (adv.)
Ce se mol bel = she's very beautiful, Un doʒ reno mol spel = one should run very quickly, I se mol frij = I'm very cold, Mol bun = very good, very well, Mol bun skriven = very well written, Mol poj = very little, Mol poje liente = very few people
mol, mole much, many, a lot ...... (singular & plural)
He av ne mol tem = he hasn't much time, ce jed mol butir = she eats a lot of butter, I av mole bibe = I have many books, mole od da bibe = many of those books, mole od la = many of them, mole liente = many people, mole denie = a lot of money
mozo can .....(modal verb)
I moz ne liso; je ste ne bib = I can't read; there is no book, un moz ne ʒivo ane jedo = one can't live without eating, eld ma is tu moz = help me if you can
na us ....(pers. pron. object)
He plagì na = he hit us, pro na = in front of us, eke od na = some of us, he s'un od na = he's one of us, nu nemì de denie ki na = we took the money with us
naturim of course
Detì he ja ? -Naturim = Did he do it ? -Of course, Moz i nemo ja ? - Naturim ne = May I take it ? - Of course not, Naturim tu ve veno be Sabadia = you'll come on Saturday of course, Je sì, naturim, u bun idea = It was, of course, a good idea, Naturim i gus ja = Of course I like it
ne 1) not ..... (negation)................. 2) no .......(≠ yes)
I vol ne ito za = I don't want to go there, Sim, ne altem = so, not otherwise, Ce sopì ne = she didn't sleep, Lu v'ne koveno = they won't agree, Kovenev lu ? = would they agree ? Ven tu ki ma ? Ne = Are you coming with me ? No
nè …nè … neither…nor…
Nè i nè vu zav ja = neither I nor you know, De bib se nè bun, nè pej = the book is neither good nor bad, He zav nè liso, nè skrivo = he can neither read nor write
nedamin nevetheless
Nedamin je se veri te… = it is nevertheless true that…, Nedamin he s'mi frat = he is nevertheless my brother
nekia nowhere
He itì nekia = he went nowhere, Nekia in Europa = nowhere in Europe, Nekia alten = nowhere else, Un mozì findo ca nekia = she was nowhere to be found
nekun nobody, no one
Nekun zav ja = nobody knows, I kon nekun zi = I don't know anybody here, Ce vizì nekun = she saw nobody, Nekun zav maj bun te i = nobody knows better than I, Ce liam nekun usim ca som = She doesn't love anybody but herself
nemaj no longer, not any more
I moz nemaj stajo = I can no longer stay, Ce vol nemaj deto ja = she no longer wants to do it, He dom nemaj zi = he is no longer living here, Det ja nemaj ! = don't do it any more ! Nu ve vizo ha nemaj = we shall see him no more
neobe neither (adj. & pron.)
I vizì neobe od la = I saw neither of them, Neobe storije se veri = neither story is true, In neobe mode = in neither way, In neobe kaze = in neither case
ner near (prep. & adv.)
Ner mi has = near my house, Ven ne tio ner ! = Don't come too close! Ner de postia je ste u bank = near the post-office there is a bank
nerim almost, nearly
I zav nerim tal ov ja = I almost know everything about it, Nerim nar = nearly black, Nerim tale mi denie = nearly all my money, Nerim talvos = almost always, He nerim falì = he almost fell, Nerim fenden = almost finished
nev nine (9)
be nev id mij = at half past nine, Nev od des vose = nine times out of ten
nevos never
I jed ja nevos = I never eat it, I av nevos vizen ha = I have never seen him, Nevos dafòr je stì u sul disaster = never before had there been such a disaster, he ve nevos ruveno = he will never come back, Maj bun posen te nevos = better late than never
newim in no way
I ve deto ja newim = I won't do it anyway, He se newim kulpi = he's in no way guilty
ni our (poss. adj.)
Nu liam ni kide = we love our children, ni bib, ni tab, ni kamar = our book, our table, our room, ni pater, ni mata = our father, our mother
nìa, nìas ours .....(poss. pron. singular & plural)
Vi vag se maj bun te nìa = your car is better than ours, Li kide av iten us ki nìas = their children have gone out with ours, Di ideas se nemaj uskluzim nìas = these ideas are no longer ours exclusively
nit nothing
I zav nit = I don't know anything, Ce vizì nit = she saw nothing, Je ste nit po jedo = there is nothing to eat, He av jeden jok nit = he 's eaten nothing yet, Nit prij ho = nothing pleases him, Nit novi = nothing new, We risk nit av nit = nothing venture, nothing gain
niz down, downwards
Ito niz = go down, Niz de koln = down the hill, Niz de klin = down the slope, Niz de strom, nizrìv = downstream, Reno niz = to run down, Slizo niz = to slide down, Niz ki de traitore ! = down with the traitors !
no to us ....(pers. pron. dative)
Dave ja no ! = Give it to us !, De director ve voko no = the director will speak to us, Lu sendì no de skrit jesta = they sent us the letter yesterday
nu we .....(pers. pron. subject)
Nu av du kide = we have two children, Kovèn nu tale ? = Do we all agree ? Nu v'ne ito = we won't go, Nu Englane… = as for us English …, Maj jun te nu = younger than us
nudo to need .....(verb)
He nud vi eld = he needs your help, He nud ne veno = he doesn't need to come, Je liuv ne, tu nud ne nemo u tegèl = it isn't raining, you don't need to take an umbrella, Dez ne mo te tu nud novi cuse ! = Don't tell me that you need new shoes !
nul zero (0), nought
Des grade ude nul = ten degrees below zero, Apsoluti nul = absolute zero
num now
Num i vol ito sopo = Now I want to go to sleep, Kim moz i kreo ta num ? = how can I believe you now ? Num se de momènt deto ja = now is the time to do it, Num i se predi = now I'm ready
nun none, no (not any) .......... (adj. & pron)
Nun kid gus ito a led = no child likes to go to sleep, Nun od de bibe = none of the books, Je stì nun = there was none, Je rest nun = there's none left
o or .....(conj.)
Roj o nar ? = red or black ? Vol vu kopo di ring o daz ? = Do you want to buy this ring or that one ? Det ja, o altem ! = Do it or else ! Pru o posen = sooner or later
-o to (+ V) (infinitive marker)
So = to be, avo = to have, sopo = to sleep, voko = to speak, kopo = to buy, jedo = to eat, ito = to go, reno = to run, varko = to work, snevo = to snow, vizo = to see
o … o … either … or …
O se silan, o it us ! = Either be quiet or go out ! He doʒ so o lenzi o stupi = he must be either lazy or stupid, Je sì o ce, o ci sesta = it was either she or her sister
obe both
Nu obe gus di bib = we both like this book, Obe sestas se blondi = both sisters are blond, In uslandi politik, obe lande se koveni = In foreign policy both countries agree
obte 1) though, although .......... 2) in spite of
Obte de liuv nu itì pasìto = in spite of the rain we went for a walk, Obte je liuv = though it's raining, Obte lu sì pavri, lu sì inregi = though poor, they were honest
obwan whereas
He uspàj tale hi denie obwan he doʒev sparo la = he spends all his money whereas he should be saving it
oc eight (8)
U dia oc horis = an eight-hour day, Je s' oc = It's eight o'clock
od 1) from, 2) of (nobility)
He ven od London = he comes from London, Od keb a pod = from head to foot, Od morna a vespen = from morning till evening, I av becepen u skrit od mi mata = I have received a letter from my mother, de Raja od Englia = the Queen of England, de Duk od Edimbùrg = the Duke of Edimburgh
oʒe even (adv.)
Oʒe in de vake = even in the holidays,Oʒe de maj optimisti = even the most optimistic, Oʒe de garde sì sopan = even the guards were asleep, I av oʒe oblasen hi nom = I have even forgotten his name
oʒe is even if
Oʒe is i it a de plaʒ, i v'ne ma bano = Even if I go to the beach, I won't bathe
oʒe ne not even
He av oʒe ne cuse = He hasn't even got shoes, He dezì oʒe ne ja mo = He didn't even tell me, I potèn oʒe ne a di asosiad = I don't even belong to this association, He blikì oʒe ne wan he orì de nove = He didn't even bat an eyelid when he heard the news
odia today (adv.)
Odia je liuvì tal dia = Today it rained all day, Odia in u sedia = today week, Kel dia se odia ? = what day is it today ? Ka dat se odia ? = what date is it today ? Odia se Wendia = today is Friday
-on, -ona augmentative suffix
U muron = a big wall, u manon = a big man, mandone = big hands, u ʒinona = a big woman, u katona = a big (she)cat
op up .....(adv.)
Nu it op de koln = we go up the hill, Glad op ! = look up !, He basì op de bal = he threw the ball up, Mande op ! = hands up ! De kat klimì op de drev = the cat climbed up the tree
-or, -ora -er (suffix indicating agent)
Liso = to read, lisor = reader, dicto = to teach, dictora = woman-teacher, skrivo = to write, skrivor = writer, voko = to speak, vokora = woman-speaker, varkor = worker, prisedana = woman-president, chairwoman
os also, too, as well as........... (& in comparisons)
I os itì (za) = I went too, He moz os snivo = he can swim too, I doʒ os usklaro… = I must also explain, He se os alti te vu = he is as tall as you, Je s'ne os bun te da = it's not so good as that, He os se zi = he is here as well
os longim te as long as
Staj os longim te tu vol = stay as long as you like, I v'ne oblaso ca os longim te i ʒiv = I won't forget her as long as I live, Os longim te de wer ve duro = as long as the war lasts
osmòl, osmole as much, as many
Je stì osmòl vin te bir = there was as much wine as beer, Je stì osmole ʒinas te mane = there were as many women as men, Je ste ne osmòl snev te fori jar = there isn't as much snow as last year, i fram va osmòl te ha = I like you as much as him
os ne not…either, neither
I kre os ne ja = I don't believe it either, I os ne = neither do I, He os ne v'ito = He won't go either, Da, i incèp os ne = I don't understand that either, Je sì os ne lezi kovikto ha = Neither was it easy to convince him
osprù te as soon as
Osprù te mozli = as soon as possible, Varne ma osprù te vu av fenden = let me know as soon as you've finished, Osprù te he vokì co, he incepì = as soon as he spoke to her, he understood
ov about, concerning, on
I men mol ov ta = I think much about you, I av oren nit ov ja = I haven't heard anything about it, I se menan ov wa i orì = I am thinking of what I heard, I zav tal ov wa je del = I know what it's all about, Voko ov ekwa = to speak about something
pa by (agent, cause)
Inkirken pa soldate = surrounded by soldiers, he vidì tuden pa trom = he was killed by lighning, u picten pa Van Gogh = a painting by Van Gogh
par because (of)
Nu v'ne ito pasìto par de pej verem = We won't go for a walk because of the bad weather, I detì ja par tu pragì mo = I did it because you asked me to, He vidì kasten par he luʒì = he was punished because he lied, par hi ald = because of his age
parkà ? why ? ....(interrogative)
Parkà ne ? = Why not ?, Parkà ne telefono co ? = Why not phone her ?, Parkà prag tu ne co ? = Why don't you ask her ?, Parkà oblasì he la ? = Why did he forget them?, Parkà venì he ? = Why did he come ?
pas past .....(prep. & adv.)
He vad pas de has jaki dia = he walks past the house every day, de kun renì pas ma = the dog ran past me, he flizì pas na = he flashed past us
pen hardly, just
He zav pen skrivo = he can hardly write, i moz pen oro va = I can hardly hear you, he avì pen voken wan… = he had hardly spoken when, nu av pen avenen = we have just arrived, ce av pen renen ap = she has just run away
per- pejorative suffix (indicating de-terioration, destruction, disappearance)
Ito = to go, perìto = to perish, mico = to mix, permico = to muddle up, laso = to leave, perlaso = to lose, curo = to swear, percuro = to forswear oneself
pin five (5)
Ce se pin jare = she s' five (years old), u pinjari plan = a five-year plan
plozim suddenly .....(adv.)
Plozim ce inizì plojo = suddenly she started crying, plozim i incepì tal = suddenly I understood everything
po for, (in order) to ....(aim, pur-pose), for ....(in exchange for, in favour of)
Di kodàv se po va = this present is for you, po ma, po ta, po ha, po ca …= for me, for you, for him, for her, Av tu sat denie po kopo de tikete ? = have you got enough money (in order) to buy the tickets ? I av venen po vizo ca = I have come to see her, Po tri dolare jak = for three dollars each, lu se po de governad = they support the government
po- prefix indicating aim, purpose
Mozo = can, pomozo = to allow, enable, cer = care, pocero = to be careful, voko = to speak, povoko = to advocate, speak in favour of
poj, poje little, few
Je ste poj sper findo usʒivore = there is little hope of finding survivors, he lis poj = he reads little, ce avì poj a dezo = she had little to say, Lu av poje bibe = they have few books, poje liente venì = few people came, poj a poj = little by little
pos after ........(prep. & conj.), .... then ........(afterwards)
Pos va = after you, pos du hore = after two hours, pos da = after this, pos he avì iten a led = after he had gone to bed, prim i it a skol, pos a dom = first I go to school, then home
pos- after- ....(prefix)
midià = midday, noon, posmidià = afternoon, pero = to carry, pospero = to postpone, gust = taste, posgùst = aftertaste, posdato = to postdate
pote so that, in order that
I vok vo Uropi pote vu moz incepo ma = I speak Uropi to you so that you could understand me
pri first ......(adj.)
Pri Maj = the first of May, in de pri sta = in the first place, po de pri vos = for the first time, liam be pri viz = love at first sight, pri ministor = prime minister
prijim please
Aj, prijim = yes, please, prijim, sede niz ! = Please sit down, Fume ne, prijim = please don't smoke, Prijim, vene in ! = please come in
prijo to please
Nu vol solem prijo = our aim is to please, je prij ne mo = I don't like it, wim prij vo = as you please, i detì ja solem po prijo vo = I did it just to please you, un moz ne prijo a talun = one cannot be liked by everyone
priʒe rather .....(adv.)
He se priʒe inteligan = he's rather clever, he felì sia priʒe bun = he felt rather good, priʒe moro ! = I'd rather die, hi bib se priʒe bun = his book is rather good, He se anzavan priʒe te stupi = he's ignorant rather than stupid
prim first .....(adv.)
Prim od tal = first of all, prim item be de miador = first let's go o the butcher's
pro 1) forward 2) in front of
It pro reg, vir ne ap ! = Go straight on, don't turn off !, muvo pro = to move forward, Ce sì stan pro de fent = she was standing in front of the window
pro- forward, pro- ....(prefix)
Proseto = to present, introduce sbdy (put forward), provado = to advance (walk forward), pro-baso = suggest, propose (throw forward), promuvo = to promote
probo to try, attempt ....(verb)
Prob jedo u poj = try to eat a little, he probì incepo = he tried to understand, Prob ʒe ja ! = just you try it!, Av vu ʒa proben di olive ? = have you ever tried these olives? I probì tri hotele, ba lu sì tale polen = I tried 3 hotels but they were all full
progòn towards, against, (prep. = going to meet)
Ito progòn ekun = to go to meet, to go towards sbdy, ito progòn u perij = to go and face danger
proìto + V keep, go on, carry on (+ Ving)
Je proìt liuvo = It keeps raining, Ce proitì voko trawan hore = She went on speaking for hours, I proìt spero te ce ve ruveno = I keep hoping that she'll come back
pur however, yet ....(adv.)
Pur ce prijì a talun = however everyone liked her, Id pur i gus de has = and yet I like the house, He skucì mi korade, pur he detì wa he volì = He listend to my advice, however he did what he liked
re- re-, again (prefix)
Redezo = to repeat (say again), redeto = to do again, regeno = to be born again, I se felic revizo ta = I'm happy to see you again, reʒivo = to live again, A revizo = good bye (see you again)
revos again
Zis nu revos ! = Here we are again ! Revos id revos = again and again, Ce se be dom revos = she's home again, jego revos = to play again, inflò revos = to blow up again, formo revos = to re-form, disparto revos = redistribute
ru back, backwards ....(in space or time)
Ite ne ru ! = don't go back ! He davì ru de denie = he gave the money back, Di pont dat ru a Romane = this bridge dates back to the Romans
ru- back .....(prefix)
Rumeno = remember (think back), ruveno = to come back, ruvoko = to answer (speak back), plago = to hit, to strike, ruplago = to strike back
sa so .......(to such an extent)
Ce se sa lovi = she's so pretty, he se sa stupi = he's so stupid, nud vu verim sa longim ? = do you really need so long ? Parkà avèn tu sa pru ? = Why are you coming so early ? Lu se talvos sa neti = They 're always so kind
sam together .....(adv.)
Lu ʒiv sam = they live together, I vizì la sam = I saw them together, vu doʒ stajo sam = you must keep together, he, sam ki hi kolege… = he, together with his colleagues…, lu it sam = they belong together,
samàj … all the more…, all the …er
Samàj bun ! = so much the better ! Samàj pej ! = so much the worse ! Je stì samàj liente te je sì anpaji = There were all the more people as it was free
samìn … all the less …
I felì ma samìn predizen …= I felt all the less prepared…
samòl, samole so much, so many
I gusì de film samòl te i itì vizo ja revos = I liked the film so much that I went back again, ce av samole klade… = she has so many dresses…, i av ʒa samole bibe = I've already got so many books
sat enough
Nu av sat pan = we have enough bread, I av sat ! = I've had enough ! Sat bibe = enough books, He se sat ric = He's quite rich, Nu av sat jeden = We have eaten enough, Je s'u sat koplizen jeg = It's quite a complicated game
se, s' am, is, are ...(present tense of "so")
Se tu felic ? = are you happy ? Di s'u bib = this is a book, Nu s'ne glaj vizo la = we are not glad to see them, Da se = That is, Nu se in soma = we're in summer, Mi tiot se pati = My uncle is ill
sep seven (7)
De sep mirvìze moldi = the seven wonders of the world, be sep id kwert = at a quarter past seven
ses six (6)
Mi son se ses jare = My son is six (years old), He dom be numar ses = he lives at number six
was, were ..(past tense of "so")
Ko sì tu ? = Where were you ? Lu sì ne be kerk fori Soldia = they were not in church last Sunday, Je sì unvos… = there was, once upon a time, I sì irgen ki ha = I was angry with him
sia himself, herself, themselves (reflexive pronoun)
Ce lav sia = she washes herself, he liam solem sia = he loves only himself, ce glad sia in de mirèl = she looks at herself in the mirror, lu vek sia, lu liv sia = they wake up, they get up
sim so, thus, in this way
I prigùs akto sim = I prefer to act in this way, Parkà tret tu ma sim ? Why do you treat me thus ? po voko sim = so to speak, id sim pro = and so on, Sim tu gus ne mi idea ! = So you don't like my idea !
siudo to be used to
I siud ne varko sa pru = I'm not used to working so early, Zi je siud liuvo in Mars = Here it often rains in March, Lu siud iro in vake in ʒul = They are used to going on holidays in July, I siudì sedo za po varto ha = I used to sit there waiting for her, Lu siudì veno be de hor vespjedi = They used to come here at dinner time
slogan according to
Slogan hi vorde = according to his words, slogan wa i viz = according to what I see, slogan ha, lu av iten ap = according to him they've gone, slogan ma = according to me
so to be 1 (verb), 2 .. (auxiliary of the durative form)
Vu se bunvenen ! = you are welcome ! So o ne so… = to be or not to be, So in vake = to be on holiday, Ce se sopan = she is sleeping, Se tu lisan ? = Are you reading ?
so po to be going to, to be about to
Je s' po liuvo = it's going to rain, I sì po calo va wan de telefòn dringì = I was about to call you when the telephone rang, i sì po deto ja jesta, ba i oblasì = I was going to do it yesterday, but I forgot
so…-an to be … ing .......(indicates duration)
I se varkan = I'm working, Se tu lisan ? = Are you reading ? Lu s'ne skucan = they aren't listen-ing, nu sì sopan = we were sleeping, ce stì stan pro de dor = she was standing in front of the door
solem only .....(adv)
Zi i kon solem va = here I only know you, he se solem des jare = he's only ten, je ste solem du persone we zav da = there are only two people who know that, he moz solem varto = he can only wait, i ve solem dezo te… = I will only say that …
som 1) same.... 2) my…, your… himself, etc…
Be de som dia = on the same day, in de som mod = in the same way, Se je de som man ? = Is it the same man ? De som priz te fori jar = the same price as last year, de som zoc = the same thing, i som, tu som, he som, nu som… myself, yourself, himself, ourselves…, i vizì de director som = I saw the director himself
su on .....(on the surface)
Su de tab = on the table, set su ti mantèl ! = put on your coat !, Su un isel = on an island, Su mar = on the sea, Su de plaz de viki = on the village square, Ito in bat su de riv = to go boating on the river, Su kwal = on horseback, Su u sikel = on a bicycle
sube above, over
De avièl flevì sube de pol = the plane flew over the town, de kwaria sube = the flat above, Dudes grade sube nul = 20 degrees above zero, Sube de tab = above the table, Sube Andrès je ste de direktor = Above Andrew there is the director
sube- above, over-, super- (prefix)
Subeflevo = to fly over, subeflujo = to submerge (flow over), subeseto = to superpose, sube-merkad = supermarket, subepaso = to surpass, subevalto = to overvalue
sul, sule such .....(singular & plural)
I gus ne sule ceste = I don't like such jokes, in u sul situasiòn = in such a situation, U sul sluz prijì ne mo = I don't like such a solution, He dezì sule stupide te tale inirgì = He said such stupid things that that everybody got angry
sunte a hundred (100)
Dusunte sele = two hundred chairs, de Wer Sunte Jaris = the Hundred Years' War, de Sunte Dias = the Hundred Days
ta you …… (singular, object)....... (familiar form)
I ve vizo ta beprù = I'll see you soon, i ven ki ta = I'm coming with you, di pupa se po ta, mi dota = this doll is for you my daughter, nu v'ito ki ta = we'll go with you, I liam nekun osmòl te ta = I love nobody as much as you
tal, tale every, all ...(singular, plural)
Tale kide gus komfite = all children like candies, tale dias = every day, tal dia = all day, nu tale zav = we all know, tal de land = all the country, tale altene = all the others, di s' tal = that 's all, he pivì ja tal = he drank all of it
tali whole
Tali vike vidì distruen = whole villages were destroyed, in tali mold = in the whole world, nu vartì u tali hor = we waited a whole hour, je liuvì tri tali dias = it rained 3 whole days, Se di de tali verid ? is that the whole truth ?
talia everywhere
Talia in mold = everywhere in the world, He oblàs hi zoce talia = he forgets his things everywhere, talia alten = everywhere else
talim quite, entirely, completely
I kovèn talim ki va = I quite agree with you, he sì talim regi = he was quite right, talim novi = quite new, ce sì talim solen = she was quite alone
talun everybody, everyone
Talun av fenden siu vark = everybody has finished his work, talun av siavi ideas ov ja = everybody has his own ideas about it, talun kon unaltem zi = everybody knows everybody else here
talvos always
He se talvos glaj = he s' always merry, wim talvos = as always, nerim talvos = nearly always, he se talvos kritikan = he is always criticizing, he s'ne talvos mol serios = he isn't always very serious, i avì talvos kreen he sì solnor = I had always thought he was a bachelor
te that .... (introducing a subordinate clause), than, as .......(in comparisons)
I zav te tu liam ma = I know that you love me, He dezì te he avì vizen ca = he said that he had seen her, Ce vokì sa laisim te i mozì pen oro ca = she was speaking so softly that I could hardly hear her, Maj ric te vu = richer than you, Min seni te i = not so old as me, Os bel te ce = as beautiful as her
ti your .........(possesive. adj. singular) (familiar form)
Ti bib se su de tab = your book is on the table, Av tu inviten ti fram ? = have you invited your friend ?, Se dize ti veste ? = Are these your clothes ?
tìa, tìas yours .....(possesive. pron. sing & plur) (familiar form)
Di se mi bib id da se tìa = this is my book and that is yours, Se di bal tìa ? = Is this ball yours ? Di cuse s'ne mìas, ba tìas = these shoes aren't mine but yours
tilie (a) thousand ...(1000)
Tilie mane = a thousand men, in tilie jare = in a thousand years, tilie daske = a thousand thanks, tilie-un = a thousand one, pintilie = five thousand, de Tilie Un Noce = The Arabian nights
tio too ............(excessively) .............. (V/ tiomòl)
tiomòl = too much, tio gren = too big, Je s' tio dar = it's too hard, di vaizèl se tio war = this suit-case is too heavy, Di sem mo tio lezi = This seems to me too easy
tiomòl, tiomole too much, too many
He vok tiomòl = he talks too much, Gusì vu de film ? Ne tiomòl = Did you like the film ? Not too much, je stì tiomole peke = there were too many cakes, I dezì ja a tiomole kide = I told too many of the children,
tis till, until, up to
Tis num = until now, tis davos = till then, tis de slogan dia = until the following day, vart tis i ven = wait till I come, He vadì tis de lucitòr = He waled up to the lighthouse
to to you ......(singular, dative) (familiar form)
Ce ve skrivo to = she'll write to you, Av he senden to u postikàrt ? = Has he sent you a postcard ? Vokì lu to ? = Did they speak to you ?, I dezì ja to tilie vose = I told you a thousand times
tra across ...(prep.), via, by way of
Ito tra de strad = to cross the street, vado tra de polde = to walk across the fields, nu venì tra Es-pania, tra Lion = we came along through Spain, via Lyons, tra tal de land = all over the country, tra zi, tra za = this way, that way,
tra- trans-, across (prefix)
Duto = to lead, traduto = to translate, davo = to give, tradavo = to pass on, transmit, noc = night, tranoco = to spend the night, veste = clothes, travesto = to disguise, plant = plant, traplanto = to transplant
tragòn across ...(on the other side of)
De vendia tragòn de strad = the shop across the road, de mulia tragòn de riv = the mill across the river
tramìd among, amidst
Tramìd de trob = among the crowd, di s'u kaz tramìd altene = it's one case among many, tramìd hi frame = among his friends
trawan 1) during, in the course of 2) while
Trawan de du posni jare = over the last two years, trawan de lesiòn = during the lesson, trawan tal de jar = throughout the year, trawan un sedia = for a week, He venì trawan i sì sopan = he came while I was sleeping
tri three (3)
Tri dismeze = three dimensions, trigami = three-legged, tri kwerte = three quarters, trisunte = three hundred
tru through (prep)
I vizì va tru de fent = I saw you through the window, Vod flujì tru de tag = water poured through the roof, Ito tru u fost = to go through a forest, Plago u klod tru u plank = to hammer a nail through a plank,I moz oro la tru de mur = I can hear them through the wall
tru- through, trans- (prefix)
Truvizi = transparent, see-through, trumujo = soak, drench (wet through), luc = light, truluci = translucent
tu you .......(singular, subject) (familiar form)
Tu se cansi = you are lucky, se tu fami ? = are you hungry ? Vol tu pivo ekwa ? = would you like something to drink ? Id tu, ka zav tu ? = What do you know ?
u poj a little, a bit
Dav mo u poj vod, prijim = give me a little water, please, U miki poj = a tiny little bit, U poj denie = a little money, U poj tio gren = a little too big, U poj maj = a little more, U poj min = a little less
u, un a, an ....(before a vowel)
U drev = a tree, un apel = an apple, u kat = a cat, un ovel = a bird, u man = a man, u ʒina = a woman, u bob = a boy, u kun = a dog, u vag = a car, u strad = a street, u kata = a she-cat
ude under
Ude de tab = under the table, Ude ni kontròl = under our control, Ude ja = under it, He venì us ude de led = he came out from under the bed, Je s' ude za = it's under there, Stajo ude vod = to stay under water, Ude Tudòre = under the Tudors
ude- under-, sub- (prefix)
Valt = value, udevalto = undervalue, veste = clothes, udeveste = underwear, pajo = to pay, ude-pajen = underpaid, nuro = to feed, udenuren = underfed, ter = earth, udeteri = underground, sub-terranean
-uj, -ujo (pejorative suffix) (& verb)
has = house, hasuj = shack, kwal = horse, kwaluj = nag, skrivo = to write, skrivujo = to scribble, picto = to paint, pictujo = to daub
un one 1) (numerical) .............. 2) (indefinite) ....3) one, you, they .........(impersonal) (V/ u)
Un, du , tri = one, two, three, un dia = one day, un bel somu morna = one fine summer morning, Av tu un ? = have you got one ? Vol tu un ? = would you like one ? He s'un od na = he's one of us, Un zav nevos = you never know, Un doʒ probo rumeno = one must try to remember, Un dez te = they say that…
unaltem each other, one another
Lu liam unaltem = they love each other, Lu skriv molvos a unaltem = they often write to each other, Lu ruspekì unaltem = they respected each other, Ki unaltem = with each other, Po unaltem = for each other,
unvos once ......(adv.)
Unvos i vizì ha in de strad = once I saw him in the street, Je stì unvos… = there was, once upon a time…, Solem unvos = only once, Jok unvos = once again, Unvos maj = once more, Unvos be mon = once a month, Maj te unvos = more than once
us out (of)
Nem u graf us de bag ! = Take a pen out of the bag ! Ven us ! = Come out ! Jeto us ekun = To throw somebody out, Ito us = to go out
usia outside (adv.)
It jego usia = go and play outside, Vizen od usia = seen from outside, He lasì de vag usia = he left the car outside, Ka usvèn usia ? = What's happening outside ?
usim except, apart from
Tale usim i = everyone except me (I), Ka moz lu deto usim varto ? = what can they do except wait ? Usim da = apart from this
uvedà besides ......(adv.)
Uvedà he skrivì u romàn id eke kurtistorije = Besides he wrote a novel and a few short stories
uvegòn opposite .....(prep.)
De has se uvegòn de kerk = the house is opposite the church, Uvegòn de riv = on the opposite bank of the river
va you .......(plural & polite form) (object)
I ve vizo va beprù = I shall see you soon, Di bib se po va = this book is for you, Neme la ki va = take them with you
vari several
I vizitì ca vari vose = I visited her several times, Vari od la = several of them, Vari od na vizì de obfàl = several of us saw the accident
ve, v' …o will, shall + V ....(future tense marker)
He ve voko = he will speak, Ve ce veno ? = will she come ? I v'ito domòr = I'll go tomorrow, Lu v'ne vizo de postor = they won't see the postman, V'ne tu veno ki na ? = won't you come with us ? He ve mozo vendo ja = He'll be able to sell it
veri true ......(adj.)
Je s' veri = that's true, Se je veri te…? = Is it true that …? Je s'ne veri = it's not true, Vido veri = to come true, Ce s' bel, ne veri ? = she's beautiful, isn't she ? U veri diamànt = a real diamond, Po voko veri = to tell the truth
vi your ....(possesive. adj.) (plural & polite form)
Vi has = your house, Vi kide = your children, Vi gardin = your garden, Vi kune = your dogs
vìa, vìas yours ......(possesive pron. sing & plur) (plural & polite form)
Kan ve de has vido vìa ? = when will the house become yours ? Se da kide vìas ? = Are these children yours ? Di kune s'ne vìas, lu se nìas = these dogs are not yours, they are ours
vido to become (verb),
Vol vu vido medikor ? = Do you want to become a doctor ? Ce ve vido mata beprù = she will soon become a mother,
vido … -en to be (auxiliary of the passive)

De mus vid jeden pa de kat = the mouse is eaten by the cat,
De has vid struen = the house is being built

vo to you .....(plural & polite form) (dative)
He vol ne voko vo = he doesn't want to speak to you, Ce ve skrivo vo = she will write to you, Dezì lu ne vo ? = didn't they tell you ? Kim it je vo ? = how are you ? He v'apero ja vo = He'll bring it to you
volo to want, would like (verb)
Ka vol tu ? = what do you want ? I volev u jasikrèm = I would like an ice-cream, Ka vol vu od ha ? = what do you want of him ? I vol ne = I don't want to, Ce vol ito sopo = she wants to go to bed, I volev ito ru dom = I would like to go home, Vol vu pivo ekwa ? = would you like a drink ?
vu you .........(plural & polite form) (subject)
Vu tale = you all, all of you, Vu France = you French, Ce se maj jun te vu = she is younger than you, Is i sev vu = if I were you, Vu tale = all of you
wa what .....(relative)
Wa tu nud se liam = what you need is love, Wa i gus se kafa = what I like is coffee, Deze no wa vu men = tell us what you think, Dez mo ov wa tu soin = tell me what you dream of
wan when .....(conj. & relative)
Wan i orì ci voc, i smijì = when I heard her voice, I smiled, De dia wan i kogonì ha = the day when I met him, Wan he sì u kid, je stì ne televìz = when he was a child, there was no TV, Wan i vok Doski, i det molvos irade = when I speak German I often make mistakes
we who, which ..(relative subject)
Ce s' u ʒika we sant mol bun = she 's a girl who sings very well, Daze we moz snivo = those who can swim, Mi tiota we dom in Berlìn = my aunt who lives in Berlin, De bib we se su de tab = the book which is on the table
wej whose .....(relative)
De man wej kap i nemì = the man whose hat I took, Daze wej pasporte i av zi = those whose passports I've got here, De bob a wej sesta i vokì = the boy whose sister I talked to
wen whom, which (relative object)
De apel wen tu jedì = the apple which you ate, De man ki wen tu jeg tenìs = the man (with whom) you play tennis with, De film ov wen ce vokì = the film of which she was speaking, De ʒika wen tu se vartan = The girl you're waiting for
wim as, like
Magi wim un elefànt = big as an elephant, Wim i dezì ʒa = as I've already said, U man wim vu id i = a man like you and me, Ce vark wim doktora = she works as a doctor, He bedutì wim un idiòt = he behaved like a fool, Wim u best in u trap = like an animal in a trap, He vark wim servor be de Central Bar = He works as a waiter at the Central Bar
wim is as if, as though
He vad wim is he av piven = he walks as if he's been drinking, He stì op wim is po ito us = he stood up as if to go out, Je sì wim is he avev ne moren = it was as if he had not died, I liam di kid wim is he sev mi son = I love this child as if he was my son
wo where ....(conj. & relative)
Staje wo vu se = stay where you are, It wo tu vol = go where you like, De sta wo lu it = the place where they are going, De has wo i genì = the house where I was born, De pol wo i dom = the town where I live, De hotèl wo he staj = The hotel where he's staying
za there
It ne za ! = don't go there, Mi sesta se za = my sister is there, Je se varmi za = it's warm there
zavo to know .... (something)
I zav ja = I know it, I zav da = I know that, I zav ne ka deto = I don't know what to do, He vol zavo nit (ov ja) = He doesn't want to know anything about it, Doj zav ja = God knows, Ka zav tu ov ja ? = What do you know about it ?
zi here
Ven zi ! = come here !, He s'ne zi = he isn't here, I staj zi = I'm staying here, Zi id za = here and there, Sed niz zi, su de sofa = Sit down here, on the sofa, Zi in Amerika un vok os Espani = Here in America, people also speak Spanish
zis, zi se here is
Zis nu ! = Here we are !, Zis de postor !, zi ven de postor ! = Here's the postman!, here comes the postman !