The Uropi verbal system can be summed up with 3 formulas (o – an - en), ( Ø – ì – ev) and ( ve-o, se-an, av-en, vid-en )

- 3 VERBAL FORMS : -o -an –en = Infinitive & Participles

-O = Infinitive ex : skrivo, liso, sopo, jedo = to write, to read, to sleep, to eat
-AN = Present participle ex : san, skrivan, flan, sopan = being, writing, blowing, sleeping
-EN = Past participle ex : lisen, jeden, flen, opren = read, eaten, blown, open


- 3 SIMPLE TENSES : Ø – ì – ev = Present, Past, Conditional

Ø (= no ending or -e ending when pronouncing is impossible) = Present
ex : skriv, lis, sop, jed = write, read, sleep, eat se, ste, fle, opre = is, stand, blow, open
-Ì = Past ex : sì, avì, oprì, sopì = was, had, opened, slept
-EV = Conditional ex : sev, avev, lisev, venev = would be, have, read, come


-3 AUXILIARIES : So (to be), Avo (to have), Vido (to get) + 1 particle : Ve

VE-O (ve + infinitive) = Future ex : ve so, ve avo, ve sopo = will be, will have, will sleep
SE-AN (to be + present participle) = The Durative Form (progressive or continuous) 
It is used to insist on the duration, the continuity of an action (= to be + Ving)
  ex : se lisan, se sopan = is reading, is sleeping
AV-EN (to have + past participle) = PAST TENSES  
av-en = Present Perfect ex : av jeden, av venen = has eaten, has come
Avo + -en is also used to form the pluperfect (avì-en, ex: avì sopen = had slept) and thepast conditional (Avev-en, ex: avev aven = would have had)
VID-EN (to get + past participle) = PASSIVE  
  Vid jeden, vidì tuden, ve vido opren = is (gets) eaten, got (was) killed, will be open



i = I ma = me mo = to me mi = my

tu = you (sing) ta = you (obj.) to = to you ti = your

he = he ha = him ho = to him hi = his

ce = she ca = her co = to her ci = her

je = it ja = it jo = to it ji = its

nu = we na = us no = to us ni = our

vu = you (plur) va = you vo = to you vi = your

lu = they la = them la = them li = their

We should add the indefinite pronoun UN = one, and the reflexive pronoun SIA = oneself (sio = to oneself, possessive siu = one’s) . The verb remains the same whatever the person.

Affirmative : personal pronoun + verb ; Interrogative : verb + personal pronoun; Negative : personal pronoun + verb + NE

ex I skriv, he lisì, ce ve sopo = I write, he read, she will sleep
  Piv tu ?, Venì he ? Zavev lu ? = Do you drink ? Did he come ? Would they know ?
  Nu vol ne, vu av ne vizen = We don’t want, you haven’t seen
  De beb sì sopan, je v’ne liuvo = The baby was sleeping, it won’t rain
  Avev vu iten za ? Tu jed ne = Would you have gone there ? You don’t eat



In Uropi, there are 2 articles.
* The definite article DE = the, for all nouns
ex : de man, de mata, de kat, de hase = the man, the mother, the cat, the houses
* The indefinite article U, UN (in front of a vowel) = a, an ; doesn’t’exist in the plural
ex : u kun, u kuna, un ovel, mane, kate = a dog, a bitch, a bird, men, cats



In Uropi there are 2 types of nouns : the nouns ending in a consonant and the nouns ending in –a
* All MASCULINE nouns end in a CONSONANT
They designate only male sexed beings and correspond to the pronoun HE = he
ex : man, kun, pater, frat, kwal, doktor = man, dog, father, brother, horse, doctor
* All FEMININE nouns end in -A
ex : 3ina, kata, mata, sesta, kwala = woman, she-cat, mother, sister, mare
They designate only female sexed beings and correspond to the pronoun CE = she
Feminine nouns can be formed by adding –A to masculine nouns ex : kat > kata
* All the other nouns are NEUTER ; they correspond to the pronoun JE = it
They end either in a consonant or in –A
ex : has, tag, strad, luc, vag, natùr = house, roof, street, light, car, nature
  kina, teatra, dia, sta, vima = cinema, theatre, day, place, winter

* The nouns ending in a consonant take an -E
ex : hase, mane, vage, kune, frate = houses, men, cars, dogs, brothers
* The nouns ending in -a take an -S
ex : katas, kinas, tiotas, dias, aktoras = she-cats, cinemas, aunts, days, actresses



It is the possessive phrase (‘s). It is the last trace of the old Indo-european declension system ; it remains in most of the present European languages: Slavic, Baltic, Germanic languages (ex-cept Dutch), Greek, Rumanian, Albanian, Armenian, etc…
* The nouns ending in a consonant take an -I , in the singular, -IS in the plural
ex : mani = man’s, vagi = car-, of a car, kuni = dog’s, kwalis = horses’, de kunis = the dogs’, de tage de hasis = the roofs of the houses, de kun mi patri = my father’s dog, de luce de vagis = the lights of the cars
* For the nouns in –a, the –a is replaced by -U in the singular, -US in the plural
ex : veste 3inus = women’s clothes, de fram ti sestu = your sister’s friend, un aktora kinu = a film star (cinema actress) , de mata mi kuzinu = my cousin’s mother
* The genitive can be used to form adjectives from nouns
ex : noc = nuit > noci = night-, nightly, noci ovel = night bird, diu fafìl = (day) butterfly, man > mani = man’s, masculine, mani veste = men’s clothes, mani moda = men’s fashion
* The genitive is used to form compounds
ex : vag + luc > vagilùc = « car light », headlight, vod = water + fal = fall > vodifàl = waterfall, strad = street + lamp = lamp > stradilàmp = streetlamp, vima = winter + sport > vimusporte = winter sports , kina + stel = étoile > kinustèl = film star



a   to   gon   against po   for tra   across

ane without   in    in, into pos    after trawan during

be   at   instà   instead pro in front of  tru    through

berù  behind  intra between slogan according to  ude under

do towards   ki    with su   on  us out of

dod since   obte in spite of  sube   above  usim except

for before ov   about (concerning) tis   till    uve over



In Uropi adjectives are invariable ; They are always placed in front of the noun
Ex : u jun man, mi seni mata, nar kate, = a young man, my old mother, black cats
  de somu dias, u famos aktora = the summer days, a famous actress
Greater degree maj… te = more…, …er than
ex : ce se maj jun te i = she is younger than me (I)
Lesser degree min… te = less… than, not so… as
ex : vu se min alti te he = you are not so tall as him (he)
Equal degree os… te = as… as
ex : he se os glaj te tu = he is as merry as you
Greater degree de maj… = the most… (or de + adjective + -es)
ex : di flor se de maj bel, de beles = this flower is the most beautiful
Lesser degree de min… = the least…
ex : he se de min seni od tale = he is the least old of all

For more details
download the UROPI grammar

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